Co-creating mediation models to meet cultural needs: two trainers’ perspectives

This post has been contributed by Judith Herrmann and Claire Holland, who are both lecturers in the Conflict Management and Resolution program at James Cook University (JCU).


Judith and Claire presented at this year’s National Mediation Conference. They discussed their personal experiences with developing training for mediators in different cultural settings overseas, including the Thailand-Burma border and the Central African Republic (CAR). Claire and Judith reflected on how their studies in conflict management and resolution as well as their mediation training in Australia had assisted them in developing training modules in these different settings. They evaluated which skills and procedural features of the Australian facilitative mediation model they found to be of greatest use and which procedures needed to be modified to be applicable to the specific locations in which they worked.

The Australian mediation standards are based on a “Western” approach to dispute resolution, such as maintaining confidentiality, managing power imbalances, maximising self-determination, etc. and not all of them necessarily find exact application in other cultural settings. The concept of creating a ‘safe space’ to talk, for example, has a different meaning in a refugee camp compared to the Australian context. Also, the idea of having a third party with ‘no vested interest in the outcome’ is unrealistic in remote villages, such as in CAR, where village chiefs are often the accepted providers of all conflict resolution processes. Additionally, maintaining confidentiality can be both impractical and undesirable in particular contexts. When discussing how mediation could work for culturally specific conflicts, such as adultery or witchcraft, mediation practices taught in the western mediation models are especially challenged.

Ideally, mediation training and conflict resolution tools are developed with the needs of the recipients of the service in mind. When creating training resources that meet local needs it is important to consider how far the definition of ‘mediation’ can be stretched and what innovations can be adapted within the process that are supported by literature and informed by practice.

Judith and Claire highlighted challenges for practitioners who are trained in a “Western” mediation model and who are working in culturally diverse settings where the client’s prior experience and expectations of ‘mediation’ may differ greatly from the views of the practitioner/trainer. Judith and Claire flagged the importance of being flexible in one’s approach to meet the needs of the participants of a process, and to innovatively and creatively adapt one’s knowledge and skills to different contexts. The presentation also highlighted the benefits of sharing experiences with practitioners and academics to contribute to the conversation of the evolving nature of mediation practice.

Judith and Claire concluded that their postgraduate studies in Conflict Management and Resolution were invaluable in developing their ability to analyse and respond creatively to issues in various cultural settings.  Judith completed her studies at JCU, where she is now the Director of the Conflict Management and Resolution program. This program builds students’ knowledge and skills in analysing, managing and resolving conflict, with subjects such as negotiation, mediation, facilitation, group conferencing and conflict coaching. Courses on offer include a Masters, a Graduate Certificate as well as Professional Development options. JCU offers flexible study with online subjects and optional weekend block-mode classes. If you are interested in doing any further study in Conflict Management and Resolution, check out the JCU program at

The plight of PacLII: a call for action

Because the shadow of the law plays a part in most disputes, the ability to access law is essential for negotiators and (some) dispute resolution practitioners. Otherwise, the legal merits of a dispute cannot be assessed as one of the measures by which parties decide whether or not to resolve their matter in a particular way.

In Australia, AustLII provides an open access platform from which anyone can access legislation (both Acts of Parliament and subordinate legislation), case law from all jurisdictions (including many tribunals), and a plethora of secondary materials such as journal articles. There are alternative reporting services that many researchers who are affiliated with a university can access via a paid subscription service.

In the small states of the Pacific, the Pacific Islands Legal Information institute
(PacLII) provides the equivalent open access database paclii-2-0-logo-smallof legal materials. There are no comparable or comprehensive subscription services.  If PacLII was diminished, there would be dire consequences for academics, legal and dispute resolution practitioners, and people who want to research the law in Pacific Island jurisdictions.

At the Australasian Law Teachers’ Association Conference in July in Wellington, New Zealand, University of the South Pacific  (USP) lecturer and new Director of PacLII Anita Jowitt spoke to conference delegates at the closing session. Anita alerted us to the fact that from 1 July 2016 PacLII’s funding is no longer assured. Whilst USP is continuing to support PacLII, options for the future sustainability of PacLII need to be explored quickly, and sustainability strategies implemented.  Anita noted that the Pacific Islands are in many senses a frontier of law, and support for PacLII also includes becoming part of the community of people who research and publish on Pacific law.

What to do

This post is intended to raise awareness of the problem. Readers are encouraged to consider how they can contribute to providing support for PacLII. Options might include:

  • Making a financial contribution or starting fundraising to contribute to PacLII;
  • Joining new research networks that PacLII is launching (the Pacific Constitutions Research Network is now open);
  • Contacting Anita and exploring other options such as tasking or sponsoring students with some of the work required to maintain PacLII (through internships etc).

Anita made it clear in her presentation that she wants to take a problem solving approach to the situation. She is open to ideas.

Anita can be contacted

National Mediation Conference 2016



The bi-annual National Mediation conference is being held at the Gold Coast with pre-conference workshops beginning on Sunday 11 September.  The conference itself runs from Monday 12 September to Wednesday 13 September and there is also a Dispute Resolution Research Forum being held at Bond University on Thursday 14 September.  A number of members from the Australian Dispute Resolution Research Network will be presenting aspects of their research (a copy of the program can be found here):

Susan Armstrong – A session on “Family Dispute Resolution in multicultural and multifaith Australia – What does it mean for Australian Muslims?

Pauline Collins – A member of the organising Committee for the conference

Jon Crowe – A plenary session on “Two Models of Mediation Ethics”

Kathy Douglas – A session on “Disputes in vertical living: Facilitating conflict resolution”

Sue Douglas – A session on “Power in mediation”

Rachael Field – A session on “Family violence: Innovations for the next decade”

Danielle Hutchinson and Emma-May Litchfield – A session on “The future of dispute resolution: A global perspective”

Lola Akin Ojelabi – A session on “Mediator attitudes toward confidentiality and public interest/policy issues: Responses from Australian and US (Californian) mediators”

Olivia Rundle – A session on “Including trans, gender diverse, intersex and/or non-heterosexual people in mediation service delivery”

Bobette Wolski – A session on “The revised NMAS Practice Standards: Mind the gaps”

This list does not include some presentations that are being delivered on the Research Forum Day, but it goes without saying that the Netowrk is also well represented at the forum.  If you are a member of the Network and I have inadvertantly left a session of yours off this list, please let me know ( and I will add your session to the list.

The Top Six ways Twitter can help your research


 Photo Credit: Alan O’Rourke via Compfight (Creative Commons Licence 2.0)

When I initially started using twitter three ago (tweeting as TooheyL as well as one of a group on the ADR Research Network’s twitter account), I worried it might be nothing but a procrastination technique.   While this can sometimes be true, more importantly I have found that tweeting has been beneficial for my research.   So, here I’d like to present my top 6 ways that Twitter can help your research:

  1. It makes you write: Experts such as Hugh Kearns and Maria Gardener make it clear that successful researchers have writing as a feature of your daily life, not something to be done on ‘research days’. Interestingly, what you write is not nearly as important as the fact that you are putting words on a page – the hard part is beginning.   Writing two or three tweets first thing in the morning is an easy way to launch yourself into a more substantial piece straight after.   If you commit yourself to just 250 words a day, that’s 5000 words a month – in many disciplines the length of a short article.
  1. It makes you bold: Many researchers (myself included) shirk away from stating their own opinion. They tend to bury their opinions in footnotes, qualifiers, and complicated frameworks.   Twitter, because it is so short, needs to be direct, and you need to be bold.   I promise that boldness will transfer into your writing, with positive results.
  1. It adds to the impact of your research: Hashtags are a great way to alert new audiences to your research and create a buzz around workshops, conferences, and publications. For example, I recently tweeted about my colleague’s book launch, and you can see in the statistics on who saw and engaged with that single tweet.   Had I been a little more succinct (see point #4 below!) I could also have added a hyperlink to the publisher.Twitter is also a very effective means to drive traffic to your blog post.   For example, 90% of the referrals to our blog come from tweets and retweets.   It is very easy to set up new blog posts to be automatically tweeted.

    Twitter can help you demonstrate your research impact – an increasingly essential for academics across the world. Altmetrics are an increasingly important metric that tracks impact across a range of media, and show your impact on the world beyond other academic publications.

  1. It makes you succinct.   A tweet can only consist of 140 characters, fewer if you include a picture or hyperlink. (Pictures are a great addition to a tweet, and greatly increase the attention your tweet receives). With every 140 character message you compose, you are learning to contract your thoughts down to their essence. This is an exercise in discipline that flows through to your academic writing
  1. It keeps you current: Strategically following media outlets, members of parliament, NGOs, international institutions and well-connected academics mean you are at the cutting edge of news stories, current controversies, and major developments. This is especially helpful to know when to submit op-ed pieces for public outlets, such as newspapers or the Conversation.
  1. It’s great networking: Twitter can connect you with academics in your field all around the world. Rather than just following others, you have the chance to RT (reply) to tweets and engage in mini-discussions. This is especially useful if you are flying solo in your field at your own institution.   When you do travel, it’s easier to reach out to someone with whom you’re connected on Twitter, to met up face-to-face.  Introverts can use Twitter to their advantage by searching for event hashtags and keywords, and engage with conference speakers before the conference begins.

If you’re now convinced that tweeting is a great idea, there is a useful primer on how to use twitter for academic purposes on the blog of the Online Academic.

Reflections on a work in progress: Some observations from the field

This post provides some brief, almost random, reflections on the progress of my research project which is being undertaken at the University of New South Wales. The first part of the post comprises a short description of the project and its rationale.  There is then a brief description of the methodology followed by a narrative of the empirical work done to date.  Finally, I have identified a few triumphs and challenges which have featured in the project up to this point.

The project

The research project in which I have been involved over the last eighteen months concerns the way in which lawyers have responded and are responding to the challenges presented by the introduction to mainstream justice institutions of mediation as an “alternative” means of ending disputes.

The rationale

This is an important subject for research because, in a world where the basis of our cohabitation as social beings in an ordered society is dictated within a framework of rules, rights and obligations and where there is increasing competition for increasingly limited resources, people who find themselves in conflict invariably still consult lawyers. It might therefore be considered that lawyers will continue to be gatekeepers of many dispute resolution processes into the foreseeable future.[1] Lawyers’ traditional role in the western justice system has been to advise their clients about the law and to assert or defend legal rights in courts and tribunals according to legal principles (either well established or developing) which provide predictability and certainty with respect to our rights and responsibilities.  It is an activity which has been jealously guarded by lawyers for centuries and one which assumes that disputes are inherently competitive in nature and must therefore be brought to an end by coercive determination after a decision maker has analysed the merits of competing claims and pronounced judgment.

In recent years, since it has become fashionable for scholastic learning to reach across traditional borders and embrace the wisdom offered by other disciplines such as psychology and sociology, we have learned that sometimes, resorting to the courts for an answer, whilst it may clarify people’s rights and declare the law, does not always provide a solution to the problem for which the lawyer was first consulted. Scholars from a range of disciplines including Sociology, Anthropology and Psychology, to name a few, have taught us that human conflict and dispute resolution can be understood from many different perspectives.  Conflict has been described as: “…a struggle over values and claims to scarce status, power, and resources, a struggle in which the aims of opponents are to neutralize, injure, or eliminate rivals”[2] and as a “…perceived divergence of interest, or a belief that parties’ current aspirations cannot be achieved simultaneously.”[3] It is not simply a question of applying a set of legal formula to a given problem and arriving at an answer which can be universally applied to guide people’s relationships and behaviour into the never ending future.  As the anthropologist Kevin Avruch explains, conflict is a feature of all human societies and an aspect of all social relationships. How we perceive its causes will determine the theories and practices which we adopt in its resolution.[4]

Encouraged by these developments, many academics have sought to extend this knowledge through research designed to improve our understanding of how new and more broadly based notions of dispute resolution might be engaged in conjunction with the law and the formal institutions of justice to assist people to improve the quality and experience of dispute resolution solutions.[5]

What this project aspires to achieve is to provide some authoritative research on how lawyers themselves are coping with the transition from the rule based, dichotomised practice of litigation in a competitive environment to what Macfarlane calls “the new advocacy”[6] in which lawyers will perceive their role more broadly than merely fighting on their clients’ behalf.  The “new lawyers” will assist their clients to engage with conflict and will provide their clients with an understanding of how conflict develops and evolves over time, how it is managed, how to function strategically and implement jointly agreed outcomes.[7]  The question which necessarily arises from this ambition is how lawyers will fill this new role and how they will become equipped and acquire the skills necessary to provide this support.


Adopting a qualitative methodology and armed with a list of questions which form the basis of a semi-structured interview, I have embarked on the task of asking lawyers what they think about their role as lawyers, how they perceive the idea of settlement, the extent of their engagement with “non-legal” issues such as emotional and economic interests and when they think that cases should be referred to ADR including, specifically, mediation. I am also asking lawyers some cultural questions about how they perceive the effect on their reputations of engagement with dispute resolution and what values and attributes they perceive to be necessary in aspiring young lawyers.

Reflecting on the work of other researchers (particularly Zariski) it seemed to me that an enquiry of this kind would not be well served by a quantitative survey seeking specific responses to predetermined questions followed by a statistical analysis of the results returned.

In the first place, the available information suggested that the legal community is “surveyed out” and suffering from “survey fatigue” which increases the likelihood of a low response rate and reduction in the validity of the data when considered as a statistical representation of a wider population.

Secondly, and a related issue, is that it was considered that a personal meeting with the respondents would provide an opportunity for the researcher to engage with the respondents in a manner which would encourage them to be more responsive to the study and to be more forthcoming and sincere in their responses to the survey questions.

Thirdly, given the broad range of factors which might influence lawyers in their thinking about mediation and its relationship with legal professional culture, it was considered that a more qualitative approach was justified. This is because the subtle nuances of professional practice cannot always be accommodated by a survey questionnaire and it was considered that the respondents should be given an opportunity of “venting” in a way that cannot be achieved by ticking a box.

Whilst the study is still in its infancy (seven interviews having been conducted and transcribed), there are some clear themes emerging and some challenges to be overcome.

Some emerging themes

Dealing firstly with the emerging themes, it should be said that the lawyers to whom I have spoken are far from being a homogenous group. Some are commercial lawyers who act either for plaintiffs or defendants in a variety of commercial causes. Some are family lawyers and some are personal injury lawyers.  One is a workplace relations lawyer who acts both for employers and employees and another is an in-house lawyer who acts only for his underwriter employer as a defendant in professional indemnity insurance claims.   One is employed by a large national law firm.  The others are employed mainly in small to medium sized regional law firms in the Newcastle and Lake Macquarie regions of New South Wales.  All were familiar with facilitative mediation and some had attended numerous mediation events as lawyer advocates, although some were also largely unaware of other forms of ADR such as early neutral evaluation.  A number of respondents were themselves accredited mediators.  In those cases, respondents were asked to consider the questions from their perspectives as lawyers rather than as mediators.

All respondents to date have been gracious in giving up their time for the interview and no interview has been conducted under pressure of the lawyer’s time or haste due to the need to meet other commitments. All respondents have been forthcoming with their personal views which, in some cases, have been expressed strongly and in some cases with surprising frankness regarding some quite sensitive personal issues.

As might be expected in a study which involves a large measure of self-reporting, all respondents have reported positively in relation to the idea of mediation, though there were significantly divergent views about the efficacy of mediation and how the process ought to be run.  A recurrent theme throughout has been a criticism of the facilitative nature of mediation and the absence of coercive pressure from the mediator to settle.  Speaking of his view of how mediation ought to be conducted, one respondent had this to say:

I want a mediator who is going to be proactive in resolving the issues. They are the ones who are successful and they are the ones who …….They are the ones who have results and some satisfaction between the parties and you really need to push hard to get a settlement.

Another respondent said this:

I have a view that it’s good for the mediator to have a view. I think that one of the first things that’s taught to mediators at mediation school is not to have a view – they are just there to facilitate the parties coming together….And I am quite happy to pay all the money to get a mediator who will have a view and who will be respected, such as a retired judge or retired senior counsel or, they don’t have to be a senior counsel, but have been a barrister for a long time. And I certainly believe that to express a view a mediator needs to express the view in a controlled way but I am of the view that mediators with a view are very helpful to the resolution.  If a view is expressed in the right way at the right time it is very helpful.

It is too early in the study to draw any firm conclusions about the underlying assumptions which underpin these sentiments. However, it is noteworthy that criticisms of mediation theory and the facilitative nature of dispute resolution in general were invariably cast in the language of distributive or ‘zero-sum’ bargaining.[8]  In response to questions asking about what matters should be considered in formulating resolution proposals, most respondents spoke of “the range” or the anticipated determination should the matter run to trial.  It was only later when the interrogator asked specifically about non-legal issues, that some respondents were prompted to introduce a conversation about emotional concerns, litigation stress, financial anxiety, appetite for risk, health issues and other contextual concerns which are implicit in most cases of conflict.Even then, those concerns were usually introduced in a distributive manner and equated with a direct cost or at the expense of what a client might otherwise have expected to receive “within the range.”

That is not to say that legal matters should be disregarded. Clearly, when a case is being litigated one of the major concerns of the parties must be what will happen if they fail to reach agreement and the case has to be determined.  However, the point here is that most respondents showed a tendency to be preoccupied with the anticipated court outcome and this may have had the effect of excluding from their consideration other potential extra-legal solutions which might have been available in a mediation or other ADR process.


Even at this early stage of the study, it is possible to identify both some triumphs and some challenges. Assuming the glass to be half full, let us look briefly at some of the triumphs.

It is important in any qualitative study which comprises personal interviews that the interviewer is able to prepare well for the interview, manage the interview capably and confidently, engage with the respondent and ask meaningful and thought provoking questions which will elicit the sort of information which is required to give meaning to the study. None of this comes naturally. It is a learned skill which is acquired only with practice and reflection.  Even after thirty years of legal practice in which many hours of professional time were spend interviewing people in various situations for different purposes, it was nevertheless of benefit to have had the opportunity of undertaking an interview techniques workshop under the tuition of Professor Simon Halliday at the University of New South Wales.  Participation in that workshop has paid significant dividends in that the course of the research interviews has been efficient, painless, comfortable, engaging and incisive in that much valuable information has been disclosed and the interviews themselves have been well received.

Ethics applications are sometimes perceived as unnecessarily bureaucratic and cumbersome, especially with low risk research where many of the ethics considerations appear to have little or no relevance to the empirical work. However, upon reflection, it is clear that they have an important role to play in reminding researchers of the need for personal organization, stringency and rigour in the manner that data is collected and the study carried out.  In the present study it was determined to make up a separate file in relation to each respondent so that appointments could be noted, email, telephone and other administrative contact could be recorded and the signed participant consent forms retained.  The file also serves as a convenient check list to ensure that all necessary action has been taken and the consent forms are signed. In this way, there is a complete record of the research which can be audited for intellectual rigour and authenticity should the need ever arise.  The system also allows easy de-identification and re-identification of data for inclusion in presentations and progress reports such as this.


The study has also disclosed some challenges, a few of which are discussed below.

In the first place, it should be observed that, as noted above, the respondents are in no sense a homogenous group who occupy themselves in similar or even remotely related, litigious tasks throughout a routine week of legal activity. The draft list of questions to which so much thought and consideration was given in the preparation and which was approved by the Ethics Committee, totally failed to take account of the fact that some questions which address specific areas of the law such as equity cases or personal injury, simply have no application to people who have never practiced in that area of the law.  In consequence, it has been necessary to adjust the questioning “on the run” to take account of those anomalies and do so in a manner which is consistent with the Ethics Committee’s approval.  Fortunately, thanks to the foresight of the project’s supervisors, the Ethics application was framed broadly enough to accommodate this contingency.  The lesson to be learned though is a good one.  When seeking approval of a questionnaire to be used in personal interviews, it is a good idea to seek approval of questions “along the lines of the questions indicated in the draft interview” so that any minor departures from the script of the kind rendered necessary in this study can be accommodated without the need to return to the Ethics Committee for amendment of approval.

Secondly, the transcription of the audio recordings has been challenging. Each interview occupies approximately one hour.  The briefest interview occupied thirty one minutes and the lengthiest was one hour and four minutes. Every hour of interview time consumes approximately six hours of transcription time.  Consideration was given to seeking funding to outsource the transcription to professional transcription service providers but, for the following reasons, that decision has been deferred, at least for the moment.

This researcher lives under the disability of a significant hearing defect. Sometimes, it is difficult to capture every word of the interview through the medium of natural hearing, though experience has proven that recorded interviews can later be replayed at volume and any material missed collected by listening to the audio recording through headsets. Whilst this has the slight disadvantage of not being able to pursue further questioning if something important is not captured during the interview, that disadvantage is more than offset by the time saving in not having to interrupt the flow of conversation and protract the interview time by asking a respondent constantly to repeat answers given during an interview.  The task of physically transcribing the interviews, tedious though it is, allows a thorough examination of the data and identification of emerging trends that may be important to the study.

A further challenge in dealing with the transcript is one that would be familiar to all transcription typists and court reporters. It is that the spoken word is fundamentally different from the written word and that is a challenge which should be recognized and addressed by all researchers who collect data in the form of transcribed records of interview. The spoken word does not use punctuation or script or formatting and, very often, we do not speak in complete sentences.  Questions arise as to how literal the transcription should be.  For example, do we include embolalia that appears in almost all speech – or do we ignore it and try to create a clear and meaningful sentence from what may have been a hesitant and thoughtful reply which may have been reconsidered even as it was given?  An example might be: “Well, yes, I err, think that.., well, ah, let me put it this way…well let’s just go back a step…” and so on.  One respondent in the present study, anxious to ensure that he was supplying information which was of interest, kept interrupting himself mid-sentence to say: “Now if this is not answering your question, please tell me.”

A further complexity of the transition from the spoken word to the written word is the tendency of respondents who are asked to give examples of things to ply back and forth between first person and third person speech often without notice so that it becomes quite confusing to work out who actually said what to whom. An example might be: “Well he came in and said: ‘Can you act for me?’ and I said yes but he would have to give me proper instructions. You know that means completing a financial statement” and so on.

These may seem to be somewhat pedantic matters but, in the interest of preserving personal integrity, faithful reporting and intellectual rigour, they are matters which need to be addressed lest we inadvertently misrepresent the data which has been supplied to us.

In order to meet these challenges, a conservative approach has been adopted and a literal transcript of his/her interview has been provided for the approval of each respondent.


This is an exciting project because, although still in its early stages, there is some evidence to confirm the hypothesis that, even now in 2016, with all the accumulated wisdom and experience we have gained through research into mediation, there is a reluctance or inability on the part of the legal profession to engage with ADR on its own terms or otherwise than by reference to the established rule-based norms of the conventional justice institutions as viewed through the prism of adversarial glasses. Whether that is a trend which will continue as the research progresses remains to be seen.


John Woodward,

University of New South Wales






[1] See F Donohoe III Lawyers as Gatekeepers: Mediation and the ADR Processing of Environmental Disputes PhD Thesis, University of California, 1997

[2] L Coser The Functions of Social Conflict (New York, Free Press, 1956) at p.8

[3] J Rubin, D. Pruitt and S. Kim Social Conflict: Escalation, Stalemate and Settlement 2nd ed. (New York, McGraw-Hill, 1994) at p.5

[4] K Avruch Culture and Conflict Resolution (Washington, US Institute of Peace Press, 1998) at p.24

[5] See, for example P Condliffe Conflict in the Compact City: Preferences and the Search for Justice PhD Thesis, Victoria University, 2011.

[6] J Macfarlane The New Lawyer: How Settlement is Transforming the Practice of Law (Vancouver UBC Press, 2008) p.96

[7] Ibid p.109

[8] P Condliffe Conflict Management: A Practical Guide (4th edition, Sydney, Lexis-Nexus-Butterworths, 2012) p.174

Symbolism and Justice: The South African Constitutional Court

The design and art of a courthouse communicates a great deal about the culture and values of the institution contained within it.  Last month I had the incredible opportunity to visit the South African Constitutional Court in Johannesburg – an institution that is itself a potent symbol of the country’s attempts to move forward in the aftermath of the apartheid era.

The design of a place of justice cannot repair the harm to South African society that was brought about by apartheid, but it does serve as a symbol of restorative justice – and a deliberate attempt to make all South Africans feel more welcome in a government building.  The design was chosen after a public competition, with the winning, young South African architects designing the building inspired by the concept of ‘justice under a tree’.  This is reflected in the physical design of the building and pays homage to traditional dispute resolution processes used by the people of South Africa.

The website for the Court explains the way in which the architecture was very deliberately designed to be inclusive as well as symbolic:

The Constitutional Court’s new home was born of a remarkable and uniquely inclusive process – one that resulted in a public building like no other. This structure, South Africa’s first major post-apartheid government building, was designed to embody the openness and transparency called for by the Constitution itself.

The building is noted for its transparency and entrancing volumes. In contrast to most courts, it is welcoming rather than forbidding, filled with sparkle and warmth. It has no marble cladding or wood panelling, but has come to be admired for its graceful proportions. And the principal materials – timber, concrete, steel, glass and black slate – infuse the court with an African feel.

Below are some of my photos with captions describing the architectural and artistic elements of the Court:


Constitutional Hill sits on the site of the old fort and central prison dating back to the colonial era in the late 1800s.  Two prison museums  explain the harsh conditions of everyday life and the arbitrary laws that led to the arrest of thousands, including Ghandi and Mandela.


  Entrance to the grounds are through the original prison doors, with the old prison windows visible.  


These are the very large carved wooden doors that are the entrance to the court building itself.  They stand about eight meters high


Engraved in the doors are depictions in words and sign language of the 27 rights contained in the South African Bill of Rights. There are Braille carvings on the door handles.





Another view showing the seating of the public compared with the judges.  You can also see here the brick walls of the court room, which were salvaged from the prison that stood on the site of the court.  Reminders of South Africa’s political past are visible everywhere.








































I was particularly intrigued by the font.  This was specially commissioned for the Court, and designed to be different from the traditional ‘official’ fonts used in government and legal documents.  The photo on the left shows the name of the building in all the languages of South Africa.

For an interesting piece on Australian court design, and engaging principles of therapeutic and restorative justice, see this article by Professor Graham Brawn.


Sex, Gender and Sexuality diversity in mediation (and other human services)


At the 2016 National Mediation Conference Olivia Rundle will be giving  a presentation drawn from a just released book called Sex, Gender, Sexuality and the Law, on behalf of the authorship team of Samantha Hardy, Olivia Rundle and Damien W Riggs. Professor Gillian Triggs, Human Rights Commissioner, writes in her Foreword:

The point is well made by the authors in this ground-breaking publication that the law  is not effective for the vast majority of those in the LGBTI community who experience discrimination, and who fail to report it. It is for this reason that community attitudes must change through education and evidence-based understanding of the damaging effect such discrimination has, not only on the immediate victim, but also on their parents, children and extended family and friends. The authors have gathered together all available evidence of discrimination against the LGBTI community in Australia and have put their research to highly practical use. They have provided detailed advice for practitioners – lawyers, mediators, the courts and service providers – who work with those who have been marginalised on the basis of their sex, gender, or sexuality.

Our book draws together legal and social science literature, legislation and case law to explore the legal treatment and common life experiences of people who are trans or gender diverse, intersex and/or non-heterosexual. We have deliberately avoided lumping together the distinct categories of sex, gender and sexuality, instead clarifying the specific characteristics that are relevant to topics that we discuss in the book. We start by explaining the terminology that we use, explore issues that affect individuals, then couples, then families who include a person who is trans or gender diverse, intersex and/or non-heterosexual. The final part of the book provides advice to professionals about how to improve the way that they deliver services to clients who may be trans or gender diverse, intersex and/or non-heterosexual.

The book project was inspired by some research results from a small pilot study in Victoria. The study invited mediation practitioners, potential and actual clients to contribute their ideas and experiences of mediation services. The results suggested that there was a gap between mediators’ perception of the suitability of their practice for diverse client groups and the actual needs of clients who are trans or gender diverse, intersex and/or non-heterosexual. In short, the mediator respondents demonstrated either discriminatory attitudes or ignorance of the way that they assumed that all of their clients were cisgender and heterosexual (and therefore did not practise in a way that was inclusive of trans or gender diverse, intersex and/or non-heterosexual clients). Some false expectations about non-heterosexual people were also evident in the results. The survey results have not been published before, but are discussed in Part 4 of our book.

There are largely unconscious assumptions in most contexts that people are either male or female, are the gender that was assigned to them at birth, that their intimate relationships are heterosexual, and that children are parented by a mother and a father who are both heterosexual. The pervasiveness of these assumptions has the effect of alienating and/or discriminating against people who do not fit into those categories. Furthermore, cisgenderism and heterosexism perpetuate an expectation that to be legitimised, people who are not cisgender and heterosexual must perform stereotypical expectations of being a heterosexual cisgender person, a heterosexual cisgender couple, or that children should experience as close as possible the heterosexual mother-father parented nuclear family. In her Foreword Professor Triggs notes:

The authors observe the paradox that, in order for the LGBTI community to have
their sexual orientation and diversity respected, it has become necessary that they
demonstrate how similar they are to traditional heterosexuals.

Our book challenges practitioners to engage in critical reflection upon the assumptions and expectations that they bring to their practice, and to learn different, more inclusive ways of engaging with their diverse community of clients. We hope that all practitioners, scholars and students who read our book will learn new information that will equip them to celebrate and improve the way that they work with the beautiful diversity in our society.